मराठीच्या बोलींचे सर्वेक्षण

Survey of Dialects of the Marathi Language

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Colocasia leaves

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The lexical variants presented in the note below are arranged according to their frequency of occurrence in the survey data-from most frequent to least frequent.

The following words were elicited for the concept of colocasia leaves in different dialects of Marathi in Maharashtra, əḷu, aḷu, yeḷu, aḍuči panə poti, čimkura, cəmkura, dʰopa, dʰoba, koci, tera, teri, tere, teḍa, patra, patʰra, bərmarakəs, ɡaṭiye, ɡʰaṭya, ɡʰaṭyači panə, deṭʰi, ɡəḍara, ərəṭ, paṭonna, patoḍyači panə, ɡʰuya, ahəlya pan, ḍoḍa, besrəm, etc.

It is noted that in certain places, the leaves are recognised by the names of the dishes prepared from ḷuči panə. For example, ɡʰaṭyači panə, patoḍyači panə, etc.

aḷu – This word was widely reported in western Maharashtra and in the Konkan region. Similarly, it was also reported in Ahmednagar, Nashik, Aurangabad, and Beed districts. In other parts of Maharashtra, the use of the word aḷu was observed infrequently. Phonetic variations of this word include yeḷu, alu, aluči panə, aḷiw, alyapatre, awəḷu, aḷa, alən pan, alwər, alwaḍ, alkuri, əḷu, aḷuče panə, əluči pan etc. The word aḍu was reported by members of the Bhil and Mahar communities in Nawapur taluka of Nandurbar district. Phonetic variations of this word include aḍuči panə, aḍu, etc. Further, the word waḍuči pan was recorded in Shirajgav village of Buldhana district.

poti – This word was primarily noted in Dhule, Nandurbar, and Jalgaon districts. Further, it was also reported in Nashik, Aurangabad, Jalna, Buldhana, Amaravati, and Nagpur districts. In Akola, Thane, Beed, and Wardha districts, this word was reported infrequently. It was recorded in Bedukwadi village of Beed district and in Thar village of Ashti taluka in Wardha district. Its phonetic variations include poti, potʰi, potin panə, potiče pan, potina panə, kotʰi, kotiče panə, etc. Other phonetic variations such as kotʰi and kotiče panə were reported only in the Amravati district.

čimkura – This word was widely reported in Latur, Osmanabad, Nanded, Parbhani, Hingoli, Akola, and Washim districts. Additionally, it was also reported in specific areas like all the talukas of Amravati district (except Dharni), Beed, and Ambajogai talukas of Beed district, and Ashti, Ner, and Mantha talukas of Wardha, Yavatmal and Jalna districts respectively. It was elicited infrequently in Barshi taluka of Solapur district, which is located adjacent to the Osmanabad district. Phonetic variations of this word include čəmkora, čmkura, čimkəra, čimkara, cumkura, čəmkura, cəndkura, cmkur, cəmkuryači panə, cəmkʰura, čəmki, čimkuryači panə, čemkura, etc.

dʰopa was predominantly reported in Nagpur, Chandrapur, Wardha, Bhandara, Gondiya, Gadchiroli and Yavatmal districts of the Vidarbha region. The occurrence of this word was very infrequent in Gaoul, Teli, Gosawi, Korku, and Bhilai communities of Nanded, Washim, Akola, and Amravati districts respectively. Its phonetic variations include dʰopa, dʰopi, dʰobi, dʰopyacə pan, dʰoba, dʰop, dʰopči panə, dʰup, etc.

kočəi – This word was mainly reported in Bhandara, Gondiya, and Gadchiroli districts of the Vidarbha region. It was recorded infrequently in Bhavapur and Ramtek taluka of Nagpur district and Bramhapuri taluka of Chandrapur district. Phonetic variations of this word include kočəi, kocəi, koče, koči, koča, etc. The phonetic variation of koča and koči was noted in the Teli and Gohari communities of Bhandara district.

teri – This word was elicited in Palghar, Raigad, and Ratnagiri districts. Other than that, it was reported infrequently in Satara and Nashik districts as well as in Chiplun taluka of Ratnagiri district. tera, tære, tere, teryači panə, teḍa, teḍi, tori, etc. were noted as the phonetic variations of this word. The use of the word tori was exceptional in Girda village of Washim district.

The word patra was predominantly observed in Nandurbar district, while its attestation in Dhule district was infrequent. In Palghar district, the use of this word was noted in the Warli community. Similarly, the Agri community in Raigad district also reported this word. Phonetic variations of this word include pətrənya, patra, bʰaǰipatrə, patran pane, patoryacə pan etc.

The word bərmarakəs was primarily observed in Bhandara, Gondiya, and Gadchiroli districts. Phonetic variations of this word include, brəhmərakəs, brhmərakšəsči pana, bərmyarakəs, brəmənarakəs, bərmyarakəšəči pətte, bərmə raksəs, bərmya rakšəs, brəmnyarakəs, bərmarakəs, brəhmrakšəsči panə, bərmyarakəšəči panə etc.

The word ɡʰaṭya was reported in Satara and Ratnagiri. It was also reported in Satara and Patan taluka of Satara district and Rajapur taluka of Ratnagiri district. ɡʰaṭwədyači panə, ɡʰaṭyači panə, ɡaṭya, ɡaṭiye, etc. were noted as the phonetic variations of this word.

The word deṭʰi was reported in Alibag taluka of Raigad district and Ambarnath taluka of Thane district. The stems of aḷu leaves are used in culinary preparations, which has presumably given rise to the use of this word for the leafy vegetable. Its phonetic variations include deṭʰi, deṭi, ḍetiči panə, etc.

The word ɡəḍara was noted among the Korku community in Dharni taluka of Amaravati district.

The words ɡərɡt / ɡərɡəṭi were sporadically used by the Katkari community in Mulshi taluka and by Maratha and Dhangar communities in Haveli and Indapur talukas of Pune district.

patoḍi – This word was reported infrequently in Raigad, Thane, and Nashik districts. It was also noted in specific talukas such as Karjat of Raigad district, Triambakeshwar of Nashik district, and Ambarnath and Bhiwandi of Thane district. The phonetic variations of this word include patoḍi, paṭonna, patodyaci panə, patoḍyan pan, patodiči panə, patoḍya, paturyace pan, etc.

ɡuya / ɡʰui – These words were reported by communities such as Binjewar, Dhiwar, Halbi, Mahar, Kunbi in Gondiya district.

əhəlya panə was reported infrequently by the Bhil community of Khandbara village in Nandurbar district.

The word šanɡura was recorded from the Mahadev Koli community of Islapur village in Nanded district while amṭa was recorded from the Kunbi community of Gadegaon village in Amaravati district. In Dharni taluka of Amravati district, the word ḍoḍa was reported from the Korku community. Additionally, the use of the word bʰaǰicə pan was attested in the Koli community of Jalgaon district.

The word besrəm was reported in Shirputi village of Washim district.

The lexical items associated with the concept of əḷu exhibit significant influence from other Indian languages. In Dravidian languages, the term for colocassia is generally noted as čepənkəǰʰaṅɡu or čembu in Tamil, čembu or čenpu in Malayalam, and čema or čama in Telugu. That being the case, the word čimkura was reported in the region of Maharashtra which is adjacent to the Telugu-speaking area. Hence, the occurrence of the word čimkura in Marathi is due to the influence of Dravidian languages. In Bengali, the leafy vegetable, colocassia, is referred to as koču. kočəi, a word similar to this was reported in eastern parts of Maharashtra. Moreover, it is likely that the word teri has entered Marathi from the English word taro. This word was recorded in Palghar, Raigad, and Ratnagiri districts. The word patra is used in Gujarati and consequently, its presence was observed in the region of Maharashtra which shares a border with the state of Gujarat.